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Toyota Production System
In order to produce world-class, quality automobiles at competitive price levels, Toyota has developed an integrated approach to production which manages equipment, materials, and people in the most efficient manner while ensuring a healthy and safe work environment.
The Toyota Production System is built on two main principles: “Just-In-Time” production and “Jidoka.” Underlying this management philosophy and the entire Toyota production process is the concept that “Good Thinking Means Good Product.”
Andon(アンドン/安灯) (English: Signboard)
A type of visual control that displays the current state of work (i.e., abnormal conditions, work instructions, and job progress information). It is one of the main tools of Jidoka.
Genchi Genbutsu (現地現物) (English: Go and see for yourself)
Go see the problem. This is the belief that practical experience is valued over theoretical knowledge. You must see the problem to know the problem.
Heijunka (平準化) (English: Production Smoothing)
The overall leveling, in the production schedule, of the volume and variety of items produced in given time periods. Heijunka is a pre-requisite for Just-in-time delivery.
Hoshin Kanri(方针管理)
Goals (with targets) and means for achieving it to address business priorities to move the organization to a new level of performance; variable from year-to-year; could also be multi-year; and is developed by executive management.
Jidoka (自働化) (English: Autonomation – automation with human intelligence)
One of the two main pillars of TPS. It refers to the ability to stop production lines, by man or machine, in the event of problems such as equipment malfunction, quality issues, or late work. Jidoka helps prevent the passing of defects, helps identify and correct problem areas using localization and isolation, and makes it possible to “build” quality at the production process.
Jishuken (自主研)
Management driven kaizen activity where management members identify areas in need of continuous improvement and spread information through the organization to stimulate kaizen activity.
Just-In-Time (ジャストインタイム) (JIT)
One of the two main pillars of TPS. It refers to the manufacturing and conveyance of only “what is needed, when it is needed, and in the amount needed.” It is built upon three basic principles:
1. The Pull System
2. Continuous Flow Processing
3. Takt time
Kanban (看板, also かんばん) (English: Sign, Index Card)
A small sign that is the key control for the Just-In-Time production; it serves as:
1. Instruction for production and conveyance
2. Visual control tool to check for over production and to detect irregular processing speeds
3. Tool to perform kaizen
Kaizen (改善) (English: Continuous Improvement)
A system of continuous improvement in which instances of Muda (waste) are eliminated one-by-one at minimal cost. This is performed by all employees rather than by specialists.
Muda (無駄, also ムダ) (English: Waste)
Non-value added. Muda is translated as waste. There are seven types of muda: (Overproduction, waiting, conveyance, processing, inventory, motion, correction).
Muri (無理) (English: Overburden)
Waste reduction is an effective way to increase profitability.
Muri can be avoided through standardized work. To achieve this a standard condition or output must be defined to assure effective judgment of quality. Then every process and function must be reduced to its simplest elements for examination and later recombination. The process must then be standardized to achieve the standard condition. This is done by taking simple work elements and combining them, one-by-one into standardized work sequences. In manufacturing, this includes:
1. Work Flow, or logical directions to be taken,
2. Repeatable Process Steps and Machine Processes, or Rational methods to get there, and
3. Takt time, or reasonable lengths of time and endurance allowed for a process.
When everyone knows the standard condition, and the standardized work sequences, the results observed include:
1. Heightened employee morale (due to close examination of ergonomics and safety),
2. higher quality,
3. improved productivity, and
4. reduced costs.
Mura (斑 or ムラ) (English: Unevenness)
Mura is avoided through Just In Time systems which are based on little or no inventory, by supplying the production process with the right part, at the right time, in the right amount, and first-in, first out component flow. Just in Time systems create a “pull system” in which each sub-process withdraws its needs from the preceding sub-processes, and ultimately from an outside supplier. When a preceding process does not receive a request or withdrawal it does not make more parts. This type of system is designed to maximize productivity by minimizing storage overhead.
For example:
1. The assembly line “makes a request to,” or “pulls from” the Paint Shop, which pulls from Body Weld.
2. The Body Weld shop pulls from Stamping.
3. At the same time, requests are going out to suppliers for specific parts, for the vehicles that have been ordered by customers.
4. Small buffers accommodate minor fluctuations, yet allow continuous flow.
5. If parts or material defects are found in one process, the Just-in-Time approach requires that the problem be quickly identified and corrected
Nemawashi (根回し)
Preliminary work to involve other sections/departments in discussions to seek input, information and/or support for a proposal or change (policy, etc.) that would affect them.
Pokayoke (平準化) (English: Production Smoothing)
Low cost, highly reliable devices, used in the jidoka system, that will stop processes in order to prevent the production of defective parts.
Standardized Work
The Toyota Production System organizes all jobs around human motion and creates an efficient production sequence without any “Muda.” Work organized in such a way is called standardized work. It consists of three elements: Takt-Time, Working Sequence, and Standard In-Process Stock.
1. Takt-Time
“Takt-Time” is the time which should be taken to produce a component on one vehicle. This timing mechanism is based on the monthly production schedule. Daily total operating time is figured on the basis of all machinery operating at 100% efficiency during regular working hours. The takt time allows us to produce many parts of many different types for use in vehicles on the production schedule and to supply those parts to each process on the assembly line at the proper time. This keeps production on schedule and permits flexible response to change in sales.
Takt Time = Straight Time Work Time (Seconds) /Required Number of Production based on Demand
2. Working Sequence
Working Sequence refers to the sequence of operations in a single process which leads a floor worker to produce quality goods efficiently and in a manner which reduces overburden and minimizes the threat of injury or illness.
3. Standard In-Process Stock
This is the minimum quantity of parts always on hand for processing on and between sub-processes. It allows the worker to do his job continuously in a set sequence of sub-processes, repeating the same operation over and over in the same order.
Yokoten (横山典)
Across everywhere. (Plant related activities and/or countermeasures that are communicated plant wide and with other company affiliates.

Written by jishuken

November 11, 2008 pada 9:41 am

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